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Male speakers were overall affected more strongly and consistently. Finally, Table 1 shows that the factor Compression in the form of its four different codec conditions affects the charisma ratings of men and women to different degrees. Overall, 21 participants took part in the perception experiment 12 female and nine male, all between 19 and 43 years old, mean All of them were fluent speakers of German with no reported speech-production or -perception disorders.
Furthermore, for men, only the differences between SPEEX and all other codecs are ificant according to Wilcoxon-Wilcox post-hoc tests with Bonferroni correction of alpha-error levelswhereas for women, also the comparisons of WAV vs. However, this idea is not consistent with our. OPUS came out ificantly. As is summarized in Table 1almost all codecs caused a decrease in perceived speaker charisma as compared to the uncompressed baseline condition WAVthus resulting in the ificant main effect of Compression.
The two women suffered more from speech compression than the two men. The complex impression of perceived charisma is queried both directly and indirectly via closely correlated attributes selected on an empirical basis. The scalar ratings concerned a set of charismatic speaker attributes.
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MP3 and WAV vs. This finding is probably caused by the fact that our stimuli were realized by professional actors. The selected subset included 26 uncompressed utterances that constituted the first part of our experimental stimuli. Two pairs of Hypotheses were addressed here, based on findings of Siegert and colleagues and Gallardo and colleagues. We suppose that this outcome was caused by the underlying codec.
Several codecs have been developed to meet various applications with different quality requirements Siegert et al. They range from age and gender Jokisch et al. Our key point in the present study is that, in remote meetings, voice-related charisma is virtually the only means that remains for charismatic speakers to win over their audience and make their listeners buy into their ideas, actions, or offers.
All 26 uncompressed stimuli have been compressed employing of each of the four presented codecs at the specified bit rate AMR-WB : This resulted in compressed stimuli. That is, for them the transmission-bandwidth effects concerned attributes that are more relevant for perceived speaker charisma. Speaker Rating i.
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Specifically, male speakers sounded more childish and less sympathetic under low-quality narrow-band than under high-quality wide-band speech transmission conditions. Furthermore the expression of the personality dimensions was comparable among the participants, thus an influence of the personality on the rating could be excluded. However, to offer a reliable service and limit the transmission bandwidth, remote meeting tools heavily rely on al compression.
Not just because of the typically sub-optimal light, posture, and gaze conditions, but also because of the reduced speaker visibility. Therefore, we focus here mainly on comparing the between the male and female speakers. Including this additional information, the entire perception experiment took about 1 h. SPEEX is an open-source fullband speech codec for internet applications requiring particularly low bit rates Xiph.
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Implemented in robots, voices with more charismatic parameter settings make listeners fill out longer questionnaires, book certain travel destinations, and even take detours by car Fischer et al. For our study, we selected a subset of two male 11 and 15 and two female 13 and 14 speakers from whom a constant utterance set was available for all emotions and the neutral version. To illustrate this gender-specific difference, Figure 1 depicts the decreased ratings caused by SPEEX or OPUS for the charisma-related attributes trustworthypersuasiveand likeable of men and women. On this basis, we can draw the following conclusions:.
studies show that women benefit quicker and overall more from voice training then men Niebuhr et al. The only except are voice-quality measures of spectral energy distribution. Many of these additional attributes have already been successfully applied in charisma rating tasks of studies [e. As studies showed that speaker charisma is a fairly complex concept and not always easy to apply by listeners in rating tasks, we additionally included nine other speaker attributes that are closely related to speaker charisma and derived from the studies of Rosenberg and Hirschberg ; Weninger et al.
Experimental-phonetic research shows that higher parameter levels i. Although the variables and findings of Gallardo and colleagues and Siegert and colleagues are only loosely associated with our aim to shed light on the connections between speech al compression and perceived speaker charisma, they provide a solid empirical basis for putting forward two pairs of hypotheses:. This is noteworthy not least because experimental charisma research suggests that women are, all else equal, generally perceived to be less charismatic then men Brooks et al.
OPUS is an open-source lossy audio codec usable for both speech and music Valin et al.
According to the definition of charisma by Michalsky,the power of charismatic speakers originates from three key abilities: The ability to evoke trust by conveying competence, the ability to evoke inspiration by conveying passion, and the ability to evoke motivation by conveying self-confidence. In our study, we used 0 i. But these effects were restricted to behavioral or interactional attributes that are less relevant for perceived speaker charisma. Our study addresses this gap for the audio al.
We discuss these findings with respect to two possible explanations. Rather, it occurred across the board and affected all speaker attributes to similar degrees. Thus, in listener ratings of speakers, the concept of charisma is—as in the present study—highly correlated with attributes like trustworthy, persuasive, and decided, as well as likeable, enthusiastic, stimulating, and visionary, see Rosenberg and Hirschberg, ; Niebuhr and Wrzeczsz, ; Brem and Niebuhr, Perceived charisma is not only a fascinating research subject. Research shows that charismatic speech makes listeners more attentive and, in addition, increases the willingness of, for example, employees or students to learn, act, and work in an effective and committed manner Antonakis et al.
The different emotional versions were excluded. In a follow-up study, Gallardo and Sanchez-Iborra varied and compared different speech compression codecs, but instead of investigating the effects of these codecs on perceived speaker attributes, they looked at how severely the codecs deteriorated the performance of automatic speaker-classification algorithms.
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Her show clear effects of transmission bandwidth on perceived speaker attributes; moreover, she found male and female speakers to be differently affected by these bandwidth effects. Remote meetings via Zoom, Skype, or Teams limit the range and richness of nonverbal communication als. Their charismatic impact decreases over a larger range of different codecs; and this decrease is additionally also more strongly pronounced than for male speakers.
Changes of selected perceived charisma related attributes for men and women. The of our perception experiment provide supporting evidence for all four Hypotheses. This database comprises German utterances that have a neutral semantic content, but are realized with different emotional prosodies as well as in a neutral matter-of-fact version by 10 professional actors five femalepseudonymized via a speaker-id 2.
The voice seems to play a particularly important role in this interplay. Gallardo investigated the effects of communication channel bandwidth narrow-band speech transmission —3, Hz vs. Female speakers, by contrast, sounded more ugly 1 and submissive and less competent in the low-quality narrow-band speech transmission condition.
On average, the rating decrease caused the codecs amounted to 1.
Creativity workshops, which are led by more charismatic moderators, end with a ificantly better and qualitatively higher idea output Bachsleitner, and, thus, contribute to the competitiveness and innovative strength of companies or societies. It has been already shown for the hybrid operation mode of OPUS that certain emotions can be recognized better Siegert et al. In this study, we only analyzed the assessment of the neutral stimuli in various codec qualities. This result underlies the main effect of Speaker Gender.
This can be either because the compression algorithms treat female speech acoustics worse than male speech acoustics, or because listeners are less forgiving of compression artifacts when they concern female speakers.
This applies in particular to persuasion-oriented settings like startup funding contests or similar investment decision-making and business tasks Brooks et al. A perception experiment was carried out in which listeners rated short stimulus utterances with systematically varied compression rates and techniques.
Also, the study by Siegert et al. We found that the total of statistically ificant codec-induced decreases of charisma or charisma-related ratings differed remarkably between men and women. TABLE 1. Here, it is often lowers values, i. Siegert et al. It also gives speakers many practical advantages in their everyday life. Experimental studies show that the voice not only allows predicting ificantly with 70—80 percent correctness which idea presentation in startup contests will receive an investment and which will not.
At the end of the rating task, socio-demographic information age, sex, mother tongue, BFI-S16 was collected from the participants. The first explanation is al-based: audio compression codecs could be generally optimized for male speech and, thus, degrade female speech more particularly in terms of charisma-associated features.
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Thus, in terms of their relevance for everyday professional life, using communication tools with speech compression seems to pose an even more risk for women than ly assumed. The perception test was conducted via an online survey tool [SoSci Survey Version 3. More details about the degradation of acoustic characteristics under compressed speech can be found in Byrne and Foulkes, ; Lee et al. It further offers a hybrid mode to improve the speech intelligibility at low bit rates, by enriching the synthesized al with characteristics represented by a psychoacoustic model Valin et al.
The overall impression of a charismatic speaker is the result of a complex interplay of many parameters. While it is worth pursuing this assumption further in experiments with behavioral or decision-making tasks, the way our data converges with evidence leaves hardly any doubt that men and women are not similarly affected by al compression.
We chose a bitrate of It uses perceptual coding for audio compression: certain parts of the original al, considered to be beyond the auditory resolution ability, are discarded. Org Foundation, It is also used as a speech codec in common voice assistant platforms Caviglione, The encoding is controlled by a quality parameter that ranges from 0 worst to 10 best.